No Child Left Behind/ESEA

No Child Left Behind (NCLB), established in 2001, called for the implementation of  high standards within the American educational system and a detailed accountability system to ensure the attainment of those standards. At its base, NCLB advances the idea that all children are capable of learning and that it is the obligation of the educational system to ensure that they do. While the intent of the law can hardly be argued with, the law itself has proven to be riddled with flaws and the practical implementation of it has been met with a lack of funding. This has proven especially true for rural schools as they are faced with a number of unique challenges.

The links listed below provide a glimpse of the extant research on NCLB within the rural context as well as providing case study work to highlight issues that rural districts are facing and how they are dealing with them.

Bitter Harvest: Rural Schools Left Behind In 'No Child Left Behind'

Department of Education: Impact in Place

Federal Register: Rural School Achievement Program

Homeroom: U.S. Department of Education Building: Connecting Educators, Building Communities Across Rural America

Rural Policy: Secure Rural Schools Act:Economic Impact Analysis

The Rural School and Community Trust: Future of Highly Qualified Teacher Rules Still Unclear

The Rural School and Community Trust: "Impact in Place": A New Federal Policy Direction


No Child Left Behind: A Desktop Reference (PDF)
U.S. Department of Education (2002)
This desktop reference outlines what is new under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 for each program supported under the Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965 and other statutes.

No Child Left Behind Act: Additional Assistance and Research on Effective Strategies Would Help Small Rural Districts (PDF)
GAO (September 2004)
Congress has raised concerns about difficulties rural districts face implementing NCLB. In this document, GAO provides NCLB implementation information on (1) key challenges rural states and districts face, (2) strategies rural districts have developed, (3) expenditures and resources related to rural districts' compliance, and (4) guidance and assistance the Department of Education (Education) is providing. To address these objectives, GAO conducted a nationally representative survey of rural and nonrural school districts. Also GAO interviewed officials in rural states and districts and Education officials.

NCLB Position Paper
National Rural Education Association (2004)

The Devil is in the Details - Rural-Sensitive Best Practices for Accountability Under No Child Left Behind
Lorna Jimerson (January 2004)

How Are Rural School Districts Meeting the Teacher Quality Requirements of No Child Left Behind? (PDF)
American Association of School Administrators (December 2003)
AASA, in cooperation with AEL Inc., conducted a study of rural school administrators with regard to recruiting and retaining teachers and complying with the teacher quality requirements of No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

Gallup Goes to School - The Importance of Confidence Intervals for Evaluating “Adequate Yearly Progress” in Small Schools
Theodore Coladarci (October 2003)